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Cheeloo University 齊魯大學
Alternative Names:Ch'i-lu-ta-hsüeh, Shantung Christian University, Qilu Daxue 齊魯大學, Shangtung Protestant University
Type:Higher education / University
Location:Tsinan/Jinan, Shangtung/Shandong Province


Source: Lutz, China and the Christian Colleges, 1971

Before 1931, Cheeloo University was known as Shantung Christian University. The name Cheeloo University (Qi-Lu daxue) first came into use in 1915.Cheeloo primarily served as a training center for social and religious workers. Religious objectives had a strong influence on the curriculum at Cheloo.
In 1919, Cheeloo experienced an administrative shake-up.In 1925-26, half the faculty at Cheloo was Chinese. In 1925, enrollment in the medical and premedical curricula accounted for over one third of the entire student body. By 1927, Cheeloo was one of the institutions that had introduced elective courses on Christianity and the Bible. The fall of 1929 in Cheeloo was marked by strikes and demonstrations, addressing the issues of registration and educational rights.
From 1925 to 1935, Cheeloo suffered a decline in prestige and influence, due to "confusion and discontinuity in the administration,.... a decline in funds from the West."(Lutz, p. 291) Protests over how the school dealt with registration requirements seriously disrupted education between 1929 and 1930. Following the Japanese advance on Ji'nan in October 1937, the school decided, based on costs, to transfer certain classes to West China Union University and encourage guest enrollment of students in other universities, rather than relocate the entire insitution. By 1938, the situation seemed to have calmed down enough to warrant the reopening of the school in Tsinan. However, factionalism was still existent to such an extent that between 1942 and 1945 a total of three people hade served as president of Cheloo and teaching was done between 1945 and 1947 on two different campuses. Thus, internal conflicts and divisions were still very much prevalent.
By 1948, academic work was again disrupted as the civil war spread to Tsinan, which fell under Communist control in September 1948. Following the outbreak of the Korean war, the Chinese government, identifying many Christian schools as tools of "American imperialism" pushed through a campaign of educational reorganization. In the fall of 1952, Cheeloo University disappeared.
Presidents: Liu Shu-ming served as president as Cheloo University. His successor, Edgar Chi-ho T'ang stepped down in 1945. President Wu K'e-ming was not acceptable to the Communists after 1948 and was subsequently replaced by David Yang, who had stayed in Tsinan during the transfer of authority.

Source: World Missionary Atlas. New York, 1925.

President: Harold Balme, F.R.C.S., D.H.P.
Office: Tsinan, Shantung, China.
Objective: The establishment of a higher educational institution to aid in the training of a strong Christian leadership for China.
Income: Mission board appropriations $50,786 (Mexican). Student fees (tuition only) $10,500 (Mexican).
Official Periodical: "Occasional Notes."
Field: China (Shantung).
Note: In 1904 the Baptists Missionary Society and the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. united their educational forces and established three Union Colleges - Arts and Sciences, Theology, and Medicine. These were located, respectively, at Weihsien, Tsingchowfu and Tsinanfu. Since 1904 other Missions have united in this educational enterprise and at present the following organizations cooperate in the administration and maintenance of the Shantung Christian University: the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the United States, the Board of Foreign Missions of the Norwegian Lutheran Church of America, the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (through the Grinnelln-China Movement), the Board of Foreign Missions, Presbyterian Church in Canada, the Baptist Missionary Society, the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, the London Missionary Society, the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society and the Presbyterian Church of England Mission. The School of Arts and Sciences is the oldest and largest school of the University. It was founded as a college by the Rev. Calvin Mateer, D.D., in the city of Tengchow in 1864. In the year 1917 all the Schools (Arts, Sciences, Theology, Medicine, Normal and Extension) were centered in Tsinan. The large developments of the University necessitated a change of organization and in 1918 three new administrative boards were established. A field board in China composed of representatives of each of the cooperating Missions has the local administration in charge. Joint boards of direction in London and New York control the policy of the institution.


The following was compiled by Peter Tze Ming Ng

Date of Establishment: 1904

Religious Affiliation: Protestant, Inter-denominational

Sponsoring Bodies:

1. American Presbyterian Missions, North (美北長老會)
2. English Baptist Missionary Society (英國浸禮會)
3. Church Missionary Society, England (英國聖公會)
4. Canadian Presbyterian Mission (加拿大長老會), later merged into United Church of Canada (加拿大聯合教會)
5. Woman’s Foreign Missionary Society of the United Church of Canada (加拿大聯合教會女佈道會)
6. Woman’s Foreign Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church (美以美會女佈道會)
7. American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (公理會)
8. Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (中華聖公會)

Cooperating Organizations:

1. English Presbyterian Mission (英國長老會)
2. Harvand-Yenching Institute (哈佛燕京學社)
3. Rockefeller Foundation (洛克菲勒基金會)
4. Salt Merchants of Jinan (濟南鹽商會)

List of Presidents:

Paul D. Bergen (1904-1915)
J.Percy Bruce (1916-1920)
Harold Balme (1921-1927)
Tien-lu Li【李天祿 Li Tien-lu】(1927-1929)
Ching Lung Chu / King Chu【朱經農 Chu Ching-lung】(1931-1933)
Shu-ming Liu【劉書銘 Liu Shu-ming】(1935-1943)
Edgar Chi-ho Tang【湯吉禾 Tang Chi-ho】(1943-1945)
Ke-ming Wu【吳克銘】(1945-1949)
David Yang 【楊德齋】(1949-1952)

Short History:

Shantung Christian University emerged in the early 1900s. The forerunner schools were Tengchow Boy’s School (登州蒙養學堂)which was founded by an American Presbyterian, Calvin Mateer in 1864 and Tsingchow Boy’s Boarding School(廣德書院) which was found by an English Baptist, Rev. Samuel Couling, in 1884. Tsingchow Boy’s School was renamed as “Tengchow College”(登州文會館)in 1876. The two mission boards met shortly after the Boxer’s Movement and decided to combine the two schools in 1902 to form “Shantung Union College”(廣文學堂). It was called “Shantung Protestant University” (The Chinese name remained as <廣文學堂>)when it was formally opened in 1904. The university was renamed in 1909 as “Shantung Christian Union University”(山東基督教共和大學). Later, two other schools, “Gotch-Robinson Theological College”(郭羅培真神學院) from Qingzhou(青州) and “Union Medical College”(共合醫道學堂)from Jinan(濟南) also joined in; and two more mission boards, “the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts” from England and “The Canadian Presbyterian Mission” from Canada, were added. The college was then renamed as: “Shantung Christian University”(with the Chinese name changed to “Qilu Daxue” <齊魯大學>) in 1917.

Existing Archives:

1. Shandong Provincial Archives
2. United Board Archives at Yale University Divinity School Library Special Collections
3. Union Theological Seminary Archives, New York
4. United Church of Canada Archives housed at the University of Toronto

Also consult Archie Crouch, Christianity in China: A Scholars’ Guide to Resources in the Libraries and Archives of The United States, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 1989.
吳梓明、梁元生主編:《中國教會大學文獻目錄》,第1-5輯, 香港:香港中文大學崇基學院宗教與中國社會研究中心出版,1996-1998.

Other Resources:

Corbett, Charles Hodge. Shantung Christian University (Cheeloo). New York: United Board for Christian Colleges in China, 1955.
韓同文編:《廣文校譜─一八六二年至一九五二》。山東:山東新聞出版局,1993。
山東省檔案館編:《山東省檔案館指南》。濟南:山東人民出版社,1995。
史靜寰:《狄考文和司徒雷登在華的教育活動》。台灣:文津出版社,1991。
〈齊魯大學設辦鄉村師範─變更文化侵略方法〉。《民國日報》84分冊 (1930),總頁592。
王神蔭:〈七七事變以前的齊魯大學〉。《濟南文史資料選輯》,第1期,頁164。
王神蔭:〈齊魯大學校史簡介〉。《全國文史資料選輯》(北京),第91期 (1983)。
王鋻:〈原齊魯大學醫學院的歷史沿革〉。《濟南文史資料選輯》,第1輯 (1983)。
朱式倫:〈齊魯大學及其附及其附屬機構介紹〉。《經南文史資料選輯》,第7輯 (1986)。
徐均望:〈回憶齊魯大學生活〉。《煙台文史資料》,第13輯 (1990)。
崔德潤:〈齊魯大學的開創〉。《煙台文史資料》,第13輯 (1990)。
包德威、陶飛亞:〈齊魯大學醫學畢業生的歷史分析〉。顧學稼等編:《中國教會大學史論叢》,頁250-267。四川:成都科技大學出版社,1994。
張士新:〈我所知道的齊魯大學〉。《山東文史資料選輯》,第16輯 (1985)。
許慕賢:〈齊魯大學國學研究所簡介〉。《濟南文史資料輯》,第5輯 1984。
陶飛亞:〈齊魯大學的歷史資料與研究〉。吳梓明編:《中國教會大學歷史文獻研討會論文集》,頁57-71。香港:中文大學出版社,1995。
陶飛亞、魯娜合譯:《齊魯大學》。珠海:珠海出版社,1999。
彼特M. 米切爾 (Peter M. Mitchell即密北德):〈二十年代末的齊魯大學〉,in 章開沅等編:《中西文化與教會大學》,頁213-235。武漢:湖北教育出版社,1991。