|Ma Xiangbo 馬相伯 (1849-1939)|
|Alternative Names:||Ma Liang 馬良 ; Ma Xiang Bo ; Ma Hsiang-po |
|Religious Affiliation:||Roman Catholic (Society of Jesus)|
LC name authority: Ma Liang, 1849-1939
Ruth Hayhoe, Ma Xiangbo and the mind of modern China 1840-1939
, Armonk, N.Y. M. E. Sharpe, 1996
: Peter Tze Ming Ng
Ma was born on April 17, 1840 in the village of Dantu 丹徒, Jiangsu Province 江蘇省. Ma’s father was a Catholic and Xiangbo was brought up in strict observance of the Catholic faith. At the age of twelve, he was enrolled into the College of St. Ignace, Xuhui Gongxue 徐匯公學 (Xujiahui 徐家匯）. Ma was ordained a Jesuit in 1870, under the close guidance of his mentor, the Italian Jesuit Angelo Zottoli 晁德蒞 (1826-1902). After many years of struggles in life, Ma developed his vision for China: “It was an establishment for advanced education that would specialize in the translation of Western books necessary for the modernization of China and develop textbooks in sciences and liberal arts needed by Chinese universities.”
After his visit to France in 1886-1887, Ma started plans for the setting up of a university, which he later called “Zhendan Xueyuan” (Zhendan Academy【震旦學院】). The Academy was started in 1903, with an initial enrollment of 24 students. It grew to 200 in 1905. That year, during Ma's absence, a French Jesuit, Fr. Francois Perrin, attempted to turn the Academy into a French school. The students protested and left the Academy. It was at the strong urging of the students that Ma sought to start a new university, which Ma gave the new name of “Fudan Gongxue 復旦公學” (a revived Aurora public school). Shortly after the establishment of the Republic of China in 1911, Ma had evolved a vision for an even higher learning institution in China, "Hanxia Kaowenyuan 函夏考文苑". Ma went to Peking (Beijing). His friend, Cai Yuanpei took up his ideas and established in 1928 the Academia Sinica (Zhongyang Yanjiuyuan 中央研究院 ) for the new Nationalist government. Whereas on the other side, Ma worked with Ying Lianzhi 英斂之and started another Catholic University in Peking, called “Beijing Gongjiao Daxue 北京公教大學"or later known as “Fu Jen Catholic University”（Furen daxue 輔仁大學）.
3. Lutz, Jessie. China and the Christian Colleges, 1850-1950. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1971. [Cite]
4. Jean-Paul Wiest. Ma Xiangbo: Pioneer of Educational Reform in China. CSRCS Occasional Paper No.9. Hong Kong: Centre for the Study of Religion and Chinese Society, Chung Chi College, CUHK, 2002.
5. <<馬相伯先生文集>> 方豪編。北京：上智編譯館，1947年。
6. <<馬相伯集>> 朱維錚主編。上海：復旦大學出版社，1996年。
Index: Christian Higher Education in China / Chinese Presidents / Ma Xiang-bo / Universities and colleges--China--19th-20th centuries / Educators--China--Biography.